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Assembly and functional description

White Bronze
White Bronze consists of an alloy of copper, tin and zinc. The advantages are a shiny, non magnetic, corrosion resistant, low friction surface with superb electrical and mechanical characteristics.

Silver is used to obtain the highest possible electrical performance. The only disadvantage is that it will tarnish (forming silver sulphite or nitrite) which can influence the mechanical coupling. This however, will not influence the electrical performance.

Silver + White Bronze
This plating combines the best properties of Silver and White Bronze. A silver base coat is applied to reach the best electrical performance with a top layer of white bronze to meet the mechanical and environmental requirements.

Nickel offers good mechanical and environmental resistance. As nickel is a magnetic metal, it is not recommendable to be used for sensitive intermodulation applications. It may also cause an allergic reaction when handled. White bronze has been introduced as a suitable replacement for nickel plating of RF-connectors.

Historically Gold has always been the preferred plating for higher frequency coaxial connectors due to its excellent conductive and anti corrosive properties. Electroplated gold is a relatively soft
material with microscopic holes. Prior to gold plating a base layer of copper or nickel is applied to prevent diffusion of the gold into the base material. However nickel is not recommended to be used for sensitive intermodulation applications.

NiP + Gold
NiP + Gold is recommended for applications requiring a high number of mating cycles. This plating comprises a non-magnetic nickel base layer and a thin gold surface layer. The effect of the hardness of the nickel plate base layer is to produce an increased wear resistance in the gold, whilst maintaining its excellent electrical contact properties. A considerable economic advantage is achieved due to the significant reduced gold thickness compared with the standard gold coatings.

plating is usually used for RF connectors which contact the PCB tracks. Tin is suitable for automatic and manual soldering. That why Tin plating is also used for springy PCB contact pins like Press-fit-pins. TIN is a low priced plating which offers a satisfying corrosive protection. Because of the softness of Tin, it is not recommendable to be used for strong abrasive applications.

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